Illiteracy in individuals stems from different, generally inter-related causes which, together, create a series of often insurmountable barriers for those concerned.
For instance, for someone born into an underprivileged milieu to parents with little formal schooling, the likelihood of being illiterate or experiencing serious learning difficulties will be higher. This is known as intergenerational transmission of illiteracy.
The following are the most frequent causes of illiteracy in adults:
- Parents with little schooling;
- Lack of books at home and lack of stimulation as to the importance of reading;
- Doing badly at or dropping out of school—many have not completed high school;
- Difficult living conditions, including poverty;
- Learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, dysorthographia, etc.
Adults aged 45 and over with low literacy skills have the distinction of belonging to generations for whom there were attractive job opportunities despite a lower level of schooling. A very large number of them have always worked in the same field, founding their families, and thus have never felt the need to go back to school.
Owing to the closing of many companies over the past few years, especially in the manufacturing and primary sectors, these people have found themselves out of work, and are often unable to find a new job, because they have difficulty reading and writing. Also, they lack the necessary skills to meet current market requirements or to register in training that would allow them to requalify.
Illiteracy in India
Illiteracy refers to the state of being unable to read or write. Illiteracy is a great hurdle for the economic development India. It entangles a man or a nation and eats into the vital of life.
Illiteracy is a scar in our national life. Millions of people in our country are still in the darkness of illiteracy and ignorance. They are deceived in every walk of life.
Lack of literacy is a hurdle for overall development and well-being of this country. It weakens the backbone of our country.
It is not only baffling our democracy slowly but steadily also leading the vast democratic set up of this country to jeopardy.
Illiteracy is a burning question to-day in India. It should be eradicated root and branch to make our life happy and prosperous.
To eradicate this problem and to bring about her social, economical and political improvements all educated persons and students should join hands together in all possible ways.
The U.N.O. has been trying its best to remove this problem of illiteracy from the under-developed countries like India. The year 1990 has been regarded as the International Literacy year.
Postal stamps and calendars have been released for this purpose by the central government but these are not sufficient steps for promotion of literacy in a large country like India.
More schools can be set up all over the country. There should be ample provisions in the Central and State budgets to fight illiteracy.
Government should try to bring every child to school. Effective measures should be taken to stop child labor.
It is this illiteracy that seizes this land of our like an Octopus and throttles her to death. Philanthropic organizations and both formal and non-formal educational institutions should help these poor people to read and write. They can play a vital role to make the illiterate literate.
Government alone cannot cope with such an uphill task of eradicating illiteracy. People themselves should come forward to perform this national duty so that the literacy drive may come to the top in a mass movement.
India is sure to be left far behind in comparison with other countries in point of socio-economic improvement unless and until the intelligentsia of the country think deeply over this cancerous disease of illiteracy.
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